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Welcome to our Math lesson on **Hindu-Arabic Numerals**, this is the fifth lesson of our suite of math lessons covering the topic of **Numbering Systems, a Historical View**, you can find links to the other lessons within this tutorial and access additional Math learning resources below this lesson.

These are numerals we actually use in a lot of activities. Hindu-Arabic is a numbering system containing 10 digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 (so it is a decimal system). Despite originally being invented in India, it was brought into Europe by Arabs during the Middle Ages.

Numbers in the Hindu-Arabic numbering system are written using the combination of the above digits. The value of these digits increases by 10 times when moving one position to the left. The rightmost digit of a Hindu-Arabic number shows the units (ones), then the next digit shows tens, then hundreds, and so on. For example, the leftmost digit in the number 44 indicates 4 tens, while the rightmost one indicates 4 ones (or units). Look at the example below.

- Convert the following Roman numbers to Hindu-Arabic ones: CCLXXVIII =

MCMXLIV =

MMCDXXXIX =__LVI__DCCCXVI = - Convert the following Hindu-Arabic numbers into Roman ones: 94 =

463 =

3413 =

4102 =

- We have for the first number CCLXXVIII = 278 because CC = 200; LXX = 70 and .

For the second number we have MCMXLIV = 1944 because M = 1000; CM = 900; XL = 40 and IV = 4.

For the third number we have MMCDXXXIX = 2439 because MM = 2000; CD = 400; XXX = 30 and IX = 9.

For the fourth number we have__LVI__DCCCXVI = 56 816 because__LVI__= 56 000; DCCC = 800; X = 10 and VI = 6. - For the first number we have 94 = XCIV because XC = 90 and IV = 4.

For the second number we have 463 = CDLXIII because CD = 400; LX = 60 and III = 3.

For the third number we have 3413 = MMMCDXIII because MMM = 3000; CD = 400; X = 10 and III = 3.

For the fourth number we have 4102 =__IV__CII because__IV__= 4000; C = 100 and II = 2.

Enjoy the "Hindu-Arabic Numerals" math lesson? People who liked the "Numbering Systems, a Historical View lesson found the following resources useful:

- Hindu Arabic Numerals Feedback. Helps other - Leave a rating for this hindu arabic numerals (see below)
- Arithmetic Math tutorial: Numbering Systems, a Historical View. Read the Numbering Systems, a Historical View math tutorial and build your math knowledge of Arithmetic
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- Check your calculations for Arithmetic questions with our excellent Arithmetic calculators which contain full equations and calculations clearly displayed line by line. See the Arithmetic Calculators by iCalculator™ below.
- Continuing learning arithmetic - read our next math tutorial: Number Sets, Positive and Negative Numbers and Number Lines

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